Erica Darian-Smith, Ming-Lee Lin, Lyndell L Lim, Peter McCluskey, Anthony J Hall
Purpose: To determine the incidence and clinical phenotype of ocular tuberculosis (OTB) in Australia based on the mandatory jurisdictional health notift- cation records for TB.
Methods: A whole population retrospective case series (Australia). Patients diagnosed with OTB were identifted over the past 10 years (1st January 2006 to 31st December 2015) as recorded by individual Health Department jurisdictions per mandatory health notiftcations. The incidence rates were calculated based on the available Australian census data. Inci- dence rates were age and sex standardised.
Results: 162 cases of OTB were identifted across Australia over a 10- year time period. Of these, 156 participants were overseas born. The ten-year Aus- tralian incidence of OTB was 0.77 per 100,000 peo- ple. While there has been a downward trend in overall TB annual incidence rates from 2010-2015, over the same period the annual incidence of ocular TB has increased compared to the four previous years. Descriptive clinical data regarding the ocular manifestations of TB was available in 73/157 patients. In these 73 patients the commonest mani- festations of OTB were unspecifted uveitis (50.1%), focal, multifocal or serpiginous choroiditis or chor- ioretinitis (12.3%) and retinal vasculitis (11.0%). Of patients with OTB, 4/162 (2.47%) had associated pulmonary TB and 8/162 (4.94%) had associated systemic (non-pulmonary) TB. Systemic anti-TB therapy was administered to 161 patients.
Conclusions: The annual Australian incidence of OTB was 0.077 per 100, 000 people. Increasing noti- ftcations in the past six years may demonstrate increased awareness and changing diagnostic cri- teria of the disease in the Australian population.